The study of a river’s currents and geological features is a science by itself.

Many features play a role in determining just how the water flows at any

given point, so it is important to have some understanding of what they

look like and what it means to your progress downstream.

  • Current: The water in a river basically flows downstream. It is

not at a steady rate, however. The water in the center of the

channel moves faster than the water along the banks, and the

water slightly below the surface level moves faster than the other

layers. This has obvious implications for speed of travel, especially

when considered in terms of bends and obstacles in the river.

  • Bends: When the river rounds a bend, the main current headsto the outside of the curve leaving very little margin of slow water.On the other hand, the margin of slow water around the inside ofthe bend is much wider. This is where the paddler should beaiming - just downstream of the inside curve - to avoid beingforced into the opposite bank or becoming entangled in debristhat has been deposited there 먹튀검증.
  • Chutes and V-shapes: A chute occurs when the water is

constricted between two points. Narrow chutes usually appear

between large rocks or an outcropping and rocks. The water level

usually drops through this area and waves form around the

obstructions. The paddler should always aim away from the

upstream wave and follow the downstream V. A feature that

constricts a significant section of the river’s width will cause

standing waves as the moving water is affected by the forced

currents of water trying to get around the constriction. The

paddler needs to be prepared for this and surfing the kayak ahead

of a swell is not only effective, but fun!

  • Holes (hydraulics): When water rushes over a large

obstruction, it flows quickly to the base of the rock and most goes

on down the river. Because of the size of the obstacle, water does

not circulate in from the sides to fill the void, so some of the water

from the down-flow ‘boils up’ into a neutral zone of water that is

neither moving up or downstream. Some of that water circulates

back to the rock where it combines with the new water flowing

over the top. This pattern of recirculation creates a hole that can

trap a kayak sideways alongside the rock or form a type of wave

that the kayak can run as it continues down the river. Some

kayakers ferry out of the hole only to get back in it for the ride. As

you approach this type of obstruction, look just downstream and

determine what the water of the boil looks like. If it resembles a

wave with water splashing up, the hole will be easier to handle.

Flat looking water indicates a stronger hydraulic.

  • Eddies: These are deceptively calm water spots on the

downstream side of an obstacle around which the water is

flowing. As the water rushes past, a void is left and some of the

flowing water recirculates upstream to fill it in. An upstream

current is created and the line between the up- and downstream

water is called the eddy line. The greater the difference in the

rate of the two flow directions, the eddy line may actually become

a wall with a different elevation in the two currents. This is much

more difficult and can easily tip an unsuspecting paddler. Eddies

are generally friendly and can be used as brief rest spots as you

are navigating a long stretch of rapids. The lower edge of the eddy

is also a good place to enter the water or move onto the shore in

an otherwise fast moving section of the river.

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