The study of a river’s currents and geological features is a science by itself.
Many features play a role in determining just how the water flows at any
given point, so it is important to have some understanding of what they
look like and what it means to your progress downstream.
- Current: The water in a river basically flows downstream. It is
not at a steady rate, however. The water in the center of the
channel moves faster than the water along the banks, and the
water slightly below the surface level moves faster than the other
layers. This has obvious implications for speed of travel, especially
when considered in terms of bends and obstacles in the river.
- Bends: When the river rounds a bend, the main current headsto the outside of the curve leaving very little margin of slow water.On the other hand, the margin of slow water around the inside ofthe bend is much wider. This is where the paddler should beaiming - just downstream of the inside curve - to avoid beingforced into the opposite bank or becoming entangled in debristhat has been deposited there 먹튀검증.
- Chutes and V-shapes: A chute occurs when the water is
constricted between two points. Narrow chutes usually appear
between large rocks or an outcropping and rocks. The water level
usually drops through this area and waves form around the
obstructions. The paddler should always aim away from the
upstream wave and follow the downstream V. A feature that
constricts a significant section of the river’s width will cause
standing waves as the moving water is affected by the forced
currents of water trying to get around the constriction. The
paddler needs to be prepared for this and surfing the kayak ahead
of a swell is not only effective, but fun!
- Holes (hydraulics): When water rushes over a large
obstruction, it flows quickly to the base of the rock and most goes
on down the river. Because of the size of the obstacle, water does
not circulate in from the sides to fill the void, so some of the water
from the down-flow ‘boils up’ into a neutral zone of water that is
neither moving up or downstream. Some of that water circulates
back to the rock where it combines with the new water flowing
over the top. This pattern of recirculation creates a hole that can
trap a kayak sideways alongside the rock or form a type of wave
that the kayak can run as it continues down the river. Some
kayakers ferry out of the hole only to get back in it for the ride. As
you approach this type of obstruction, look just downstream and
determine what the water of the boil looks like. If it resembles a
wave with water splashing up, the hole will be easier to handle.
Flat looking water indicates a stronger hydraulic.
- Eddies: These are deceptively calm water spots on the
downstream side of an obstacle around which the water is
flowing. As the water rushes past, a void is left and some of the
flowing water recirculates upstream to fill it in. An upstream
current is created and the line between the up- and downstream
water is called the eddy line. The greater the difference in the
rate of the two flow directions, the eddy line may actually become
a wall with a different elevation in the two currents. This is much
more difficult and can easily tip an unsuspecting paddler. Eddies
are generally friendly and can be used as brief rest spots as you
are navigating a long stretch of rapids. The lower edge of the eddy
is also a good place to enter the water or move onto the shore in
an otherwise fast moving section of the river.